Why doesn't the 433A manual or the "quick start card" mention the need for an extra AA cartridge in the guideway at the start of a sequence?
How often should the sound of the vacuum assist be heard on the 433A?
At most, once or twice a day. If more frequent, there may be a gas leak. Nitrogen pressure is used to generate the vacuum, which assists the opening of the valves. If there is no apparent gas leak, then it is possible that a valve has failed and the solvent leakage has damaged the vacuum ballast. Both the vacuum system and the valve block need inspection.
Answer Id: 1315
How can peptide synthesis amino acid cartridges leak and spill solvents during their activation and transfer to the RV?
If these cartridges are being reused, the NMP can cause them to swell, and they no longer fit or slide well in the guideway. If the guideway or the exterior of the needles have became dirty, this can also lead to misalignment. And if you forgot to remove the metal cap, the needle cannot penetrate the septum - this may cause a spill OR stop the run.
Answer Id: 1316
When should DMSO, formamide, glycerol and other cosolvents be used in PCR?
Cosolvents may be used when there is a failure of amplification, either because the template contains stable hairpin-loops or the region of amplification is GC-rich. Keep in mind that all of these cosolvents have the effect of lowering enzyme activity, which will decrease amplification yield. For more information see P Landre et al (1995). The use of co-solvents to enhance amplification by the polymerase chain reaction. In: PCR Strategies, edited by MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninsky. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 3-16.
Additionally, when amplifying very long PCR fragments (greater than 5 kb) the use of cosolvents is often recommended to help compensate for the increased melting temperature of these fragments.
Answer Id: 1320
Why is it necessary to dilute ligated DNA products before adding them to competent bacterial cells?
Components of the ligation reaction (enzymes, salts) can interfere with transformation, and may reduce the number of recombinant colonies or plaques. We recommend a five-fold dilution of the ligation mix, and adding not more than 1/10 of the diluted volume to the cells. For best results, the volume added should also not exceed 10% of the volume of the competent cells that you are using.
Answer Id: 3098
How can unstable or toxic DNA inserts be maintained in bacteria?
There are a few steps you can take to improve stability of clones with difficult-to-maintain inserts. Supplement the medium with extra nutrients (e.g., add 20-30 mM glucose to Terrific Broth) or try a vector that has a reduced copy number (e.g., pBR322). Some clones can exhibit a high degree of deletions; this is usually a result of the clones having long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences or regions with high secondary structure. To overcome this problem, the cells can be grown at 30°C or ambient temperature (in LB or in a nutrient rich broth like Terrific Broth). Do not to let the cells reach late stationary phase in liquid culture. Alternatively, transform into cells that maintain unstable sequences such as Stbl2™, Stbl3™, or Stbl4™ cells.
Answer Id: 3099
Is S.O.C. medium absolutely required when recovering competent bacterial cells during transformation?
Many media can be used to grow transformed cells, including standard LB, SOB or TB broths. However, S.O.C. is the optimal choice for recovery of the cells before plating. The nutrient-rich formula with added glucose is often important for obtaining maximum transformation efficiencies.
Answer Id: 3100
Can I re-use my competent cells once the tube has been thawed?
Yes, competent cells can be thawed and re-frozen at least once, but be aware that each freeze-thaw cycle can result in up to a 10-fold reduction in transformation efficiency.
To re-freeze unused competent cells, we recommend the following protocol: Pre-cool some new empty vials on ice for 5 min. Thaw the cells, and then aliquot a single-use volume of cells (usually 20-100 ul as recommended in the product manual) into the new tube. Freeze the cells immediately in a dry ice-ethanol bath. (Be sure that ethanol does not leak inside the tube - keep the level of ethanol well below the cap.) Transfer the frozen cells immediately to a -80C freezer, and do not thaw them again until ready for use.
Answer Id: 3103
What is the formulation of the SOC medium that is provided with competent cells?
SOC (Super Optimal Catabolite) Medium Preparation (for 1 Liter):
1) To a 2 Liter flask with stir bar add the following:
- Bacto Tryptone 20 g
- Yeast Extract 5 g
- Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 0.58 g
- Potassium Chloride (KCl) 0.186 g
2) Add sterile water to a final volume of 1 Liter.
3) Mix well on magnetic stir plate for 5-10 minutes or until all of the ingredients are well mixed and completely dissolved.
4) Autoclave 30 minutes.
5) Allow to cool to room temperature.
6) Add 10 ml of sterile 2M Magnesium Solution (1M Magnesium sulfate, 1M Magnesium chloride)and mix well.
7) Add 10 ml of sterile 2M Glucose and mix well. (Final Glucose concentration is 20 mM).
Answer Id: 3343
What are the packaging limits for lentivirus and adenovirus? Can a 9 kb fragment be packaged into either?
No, neither lentivirus nor adenovirus can take an insert as large as 9 Kb. Lentiviral packaging limits are around 6 kb and adenoviral packaging limits are around 7-7.5 kb. Above that, no virus is made.
For lentivirus, titers will generally decrease as the size of the insert increases. We have effectively packaged inserts of 5.2 kb with good titer (approx. 0.5 x 10^5 cfu/mL). The size of the wild-type HIV-1 genome is approximately 10 kb. Since the size of the elements required for expression from pLenti vectors add up to approximately 4-4.4 kb, the size of your gene of interest should theoretically not exceed 5.6-6 kb for efficient packaging (see below for packaging limits for individual vectors).
pLenti4/V5-DEST™ vector: 6 kb
pLenti6/V5-DEST™ vector: 6 kb
pLenti6/V5/D-TOPO® vector: 6 kb
pLenti6/UbC/V5-DEST™ vector: 5.6 kb
For adenovirus, the maximum packagable size is approximately 7-7.5 Kb (see below for packaging limits for individual vectors).
pAd/CMV/V5-DEST™ vector: 6 kb
pAd/PL-DEST™ vector: 7.5 kb
Answer Id: 4095
How do I know whether to choose lentivirus or adenovirus for viral expression?
If you're interested in stable integration and selection, choose the lentiviral system. We offer both a Directional TOPO® (D-TOPO®) and Gateway® version of the kit to provide flexibility in the cloning of the gene of interest.
If you're looking for transient gene expression, choose the adenoviral system. We offer the Gateway® cloning method for this product. It should be noted, however, that gene expression from both systems is typically detected within 24-48 hours of transduction, so both systems can be used for experiments of a transient nature. The main difference is that lentivirus integrates into the host genome and adenovirus does not. Higher viral titers are achieved with the adenovirus.
Answer Id: 4098
What are the safety issues associated with the use of your viral systems?
Both the lentiviral and adenoviral systems should be used following Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2). We recommend strict adherence to all CDC guidelines for BSL-2 (as well as institutional guidelines). Life Technologies has also engineered specific safety features into the lentiviral system.
Consult the "Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories" publication (www.cdc.gov, published by the CDC in the USA, describes BSL-2 handling) and the "Laboratory Biosafety Guidelines" publication (www.phac-aspc.gc.ca, published by the Centre for Emergency Preparedness and Response in Canada) for more information on safe handling of various organisms and the physical requirements for facilities that work with them.
Answer Id: 4099
How should I store lentivirus, adenovirus and viral vectors?
Store lentiviral and adenoviral expression vectors at -20 degrees C. Due to their relatively large sizes, we do not recommend storing these vectors at -80 degrees C, as the vector solutions will completely freeze and too many freeze thaws from -80 degrees C will affect the cloning efficiency. At -20 degrees C, the vectors will be stable but will not freeze completely.
Both adenovirus and lentivirus should be aliquoted immediately after production and stored at -80 degrees C.
Lentivirus is more sensitive to storage temperature and to freeze/thaw than adenovirus and should be handled with care. Adenovirus can typically be frozen/thawed up to 3 times without loss of titer, while lentivirus can lose up to 5% or more activity with each freeze/thaw. It is recommended to aliquot your virus into small working volumes immediately after production, freeze at -80 degrees C, and then thaw just one aliquot for titering. This way, every time you thaw a new aliquot it should be the same titer as your first tube.
Adenovirus can be kept overnight at 4 degrees C if necessary, but it is best to avoid this. Viruses will be most stable at -80 degrees C.
When stored properly, viral stocks should maintain consistent titer and be suitable for use for up to one year. After long-term storage, we recommend re-titering your viral stocks before use.
Answer Id: 4100
Do you recommend a specific FBS for culture of the 293FT or 293A cells used in the ViraPower™ kits? What plastic plates do you recommend?
We use mycoplasma-tested Gibco® FBS (Cat. No. 16000-044) without any modifications. We have observed that when 293FT cells are cultured in the presence of this FBS following the instructions in the manual, virus production is better than that obtained with many other serum sources.
We use the following plasticware for 293A and 293FT cells:
T175--Fisher Cat. No. 10-126-13; this is a Falcon flask with 0.2 μm vented plug seal cap.
T75--Fisher Cat. No. 07-200-68; this is a Costar flask with 0.2 μm vented seal cap.
100 mm plate--Fisher Cat. No. 08-772E; this is a Falcon tissue culture-treated polystyrene plate
We get excellent adherence on these plates under routine cell culture/maintenance conditions (expect cell lysis in 293A cells when making adenovirus).
Answer Id: 4101
Will I get the same transduction efficiency with both lentivirus and adenovirus in the same cell line?
This depends entirely on the target cell. Adenovirus requires the coxsackie-adenovirus receptor (CAR) and an integrin for efficient transduction. Lentivirus (with VSV-G) binds to a lipid in the plasma membrane (present on all cell types). With two totally different mechanisms of entry into the cell, there will always be differences in transduction efficiencies. However, the efficiency of transduction for both viral systems is easily modulated by the multiplicity of infection (MOI) used.
Answer Id: 4102