What is the CloneChecker™ System?
The CloneChecker™ System is a rapid method for screening recombinant bacterial colonies or liquid cultures of colonies for the presence of target plasmid DNA. The CloneChecker™ System:
- Screens bacterial colonies for plasmid DNA and insert of interest prior to purification
- Screens for inserts >200 bp in plasmids up to 15 kb by size comparison to the original vector or a DNA size marker
- Goes from plated colonies through lysis in less than 5 minutes
- Allows for supercoiled, restriction digest, or PCR analysis
- Works with single-copy plasmids starting with a 2-mm bacterial colony
- Includes sufficient reagents for processing 100 bacterial samples by supercoiled analysis (direct size comparison); and 100 samples by restriction endonuclease or PCR analysis.
Answer Id: 3027
How does the CloneChecker™ system compare to colony PCR?
The supercoiled analysis method offered by the CloneChecker™ system is an alternative to PCR for screening recombinant bacterial colonies or liquid cultures. Supercoiled analysis is significantly faster and less expensive than colony PCR for screening large numbers of clones. When the cloning efficiency is low, the savings in labor, time and reagent expense using the CloneChecker™ system can be significant. In standard PCR, reaction efficiency drops dramatically for amplicons greater than 1 kb and insert orientation is not usually determined. These limitations are overcome using the CloneChecker™ system.
Answer Id: 3074
Can N-terminal or C-terminal tags be attached to a Gateway® Entry clone?
To have an N-terminal tag, the gene of interest must be in the correct reading frame when using non-TOPO® adapted Gateway® entry vectors. All TOPO® adapted Gateway® Entry vectors will automatically put the insert into the correct reading frame, and to add the N-terminal tag you simply recombine with a destination vector that has N-terminal tag.
To attach a C-terminal tag to your gene of interest, the insert must lack its stop codon, and be in the correct reading frame for compatibility with our C-terminal tagged destination vectors. Again, TOPO® adapted Gateway® Entry vectors will automatically put the insert into the correct reading frame. If you do not want the C-terminal tag to be expressed, simply include a stop codon at the end of the insert that is in frame with the initial ATG.
Generally, you need to choose a destination vector before you design and clone your insert into the Entry vector. This will determine whether you need to include an initiating ATG or stop codon with your insert.
Answer Id: 3950
Can you go directly from a pENTR™/D-TOPO® reaction into an LR Clonase® Reaction without first purifying the DNA?
In most cases there will not be enough pENTR™ vector DNA present to go directly from TOPO® cloning into an LR reaction. You need between 100-300 ng of pENTR™ vector for an efficient LR reaction, and miniprep of a colony from the TOPO® transformation is necessary to obtain that much DNA. However, if you want to try it, here are some recommendations for attempting to go straight into LR reactions from the TOPO® reaction using pENTR™/D, or SD TOPO®, or pCR®8/GW/TOPO® vectors:
1. Heat inactivate the topoisomerase after the TOPO® cloning reaction by incubating the reaction at 85C for 15 minutes.
2. Use the entire reaction (6 uL) in the LR clonase reaction. No purification steps are necessary.
3. Divide the completed LR reaction into 4 tubes and carry out transformations with each tube. You cannot transform entire 20 uL reaction in one transformation, and we have not tried ethanol precipitation and then a single transformation.
When attempting this protocol, we observed very low efficiencies (~10 colonies/plate). So just be aware that while technically possible, going directly into an LR reaction from a TOPO® reaction is very inefficient and will result in a very low colony number, if any at all.
Answer Id: 3953
What are the melting temperatures for the M13 Forward (-20) and M13 Reverse primers in the TOPO® Cloning and Zero Blunt® Kits?
Assuming that the primer is at a 50 nM final concentration and 50 mM final salt concentration, the melting temperatures are: M13 Forward (-20) Primer = 52.7 and the M13 Reverse Primer = 45.3. For use in the control PCR reaction we recommend using an annealing temperature of 56C.
Answer Id: 4024
How does TA Cloning® work?
Taq polymerase has a non-template-dependent terminal transferase activity that adds a single deoxyadenosine (A) to the 3´ ends of PCR products. The linearized vector supplied in our TA Cloning® kits have single, overhanging 3´ deoxythymidine (T) residues. This allows PCR inserts to ligate efficiently with the vector.
Answer Id: 4061
Can I use a DNA polymerase mixture containing both Taq polymerase and a proofreading polymerase for TA Cloning®?
If you wish to use a polymerase mixture containing Taq polymerase and a proofreading polymerase, Taq must be used in excess with a 10:1 ratio of Taq to the proofreading enzyme to ensure the presence of 3´ A-overhangs on the PCR product. If you use polymerase mixtures that do not have enough Taq polymerase or a proofreading polymerase only, you can add 3' A-overhangs following PCR. See the vector product manuals for details.
Some examples of Taq blends that are compatible with TOPO® TA Cloning® are Platinum® Taq DNA Polymerase High Fidelity and AccuPrime™ Taq DNA Polymerase High Fidelity.
Answer Id: 4062
What are the insert size limitations of TOPO® cloning kits?
Regular TOPO® TA Cloning® kits are efficient for cloning PCR products up to approximately 2-3kb. With PCR products larger than 3kb, the efficiency of cloning drops significantly. The TOPO® XL PCR Cloning kit has been optimized for TOPO® cloning of long (3-10kb) PCR products.
If using the regular TOPO® kits, here are some tips to improve efficiency:
1. Use crystal violet instead of ethidium bromide (EtBr) to visualize the PCR for gel isolation to avoid DNA nicks
2. Increase incubation time of the TOPO® reaction to 30 mins
3. Keep insert:vector molar ratio low, optimally 1:1
4. Dilute reaction to 20ul, while maintaining same amount of vector and insert. Increase the volume of the salt solution to 3.7ul to compensate for the increase in volume. Diluting the reaction reduces the competition for the vector ends.
Answer Id: 4126
What PCR enzyme would you recommend for use with the Directional TOPO® Cloning Kits?
For the Directional TOPO® Cloning Vectors, a PCR product must be generated by a proofreading enzyme to create a blunt product. Pfx50™ or Accuprime™ Pfx and Accuprime™ Pfx Supermix from Life Technologies are recommended for use.
When cloning a Pfx-amplified PCR product, the insert to vector ratio is an important consideration. The PCR product generally needs to be diluted since Pfx generates a high concentration of product and using too much insert DNA can hamper the TOPO® reaction. A 1:1 molar ratio of vector to insert (or about 2-10ng of insert) is recommended.
Answer Id: 4290
How can I tell whether or not a reagent bottle is pressurizing correctly when using the Procise™ System?
You can backflush the bottle's pickup line in manual control (there is a specific function for each bottle position on the Procise™ System) and observe its bubbling, which should slow and then stop within a short period (depending upon how full the bottle is) as it pressurizes with argon. If it continues to bubble, either the cap assembly is leaking or the pressurizing or venting valves for the bottle are.
Answer Id: 1261
Why is the conductivity so high in my peptide synthesis (monitored during deprotection)?
The meter detects any ionic species. A common cause of higher than expected values is a leak of a small amount of resin from the RV into the lines and up to the in-line filters. The use of old or poor quality piperidine or NMP may also give a high background. Standard conductivity measured in micro Siemens/cm is much higher than the sensitivity of this cell. A very small amount of ionic material caused a large change in the reading. Occasionally, Fmoc amino acids have ionic contaminants which give high readings. In-line filters may also be contaminated.
Answer Id: 1313
Are IPTG and X-gal necessary for blue/white screening of colonies?
With a vector containing the lac promoter and the LacZ alpha fragment (for alpha-complementation), blue/white screening can be used as a tool to select for presence of an insert. X-gal is added to the plate as a substrate for the LacZ-encoded beta-galactosidase enzyme and must always be present to see the blue color in the blue/white screening.
In cases where the lacIq repressor is present (either provided by the host cells on an F' episome, i.e. TOP10F', or expressed from the plasmid), it will repress expression of LacZ from the lac promoter and prevent the formation of the blue color with X-gal. This repression can be reversed by adding IPTG to the media in addition to X-gal, which will inhibit the action of lacIq and re-activate expression from the lac promoter.
Answer Id: 3322
What are some of the competent cell strains offered with your TA Cloning® and TOPO® TA Cloning® vectors, and how should I choose?
TOP10, TOP10F', DH5a™ and INValphaF' are some of the strains offered with the Original TA Cloning® Kits and the TOPO® TA Cloning Kits. E. coli strains DH5a™,TOP10, and INValphaF' do not have the lacIq repressor and permit constitutive expression from the lac promoter. With these cells, there is no need to add IPTG (inducer) for blue/white screening with X-gal. In contrast, E. coli strain TOP10F' carries the lacIq repressor and requires IPTG inducer to be added to enable blue/white screening. Please note, the F' episome in the INValphaF' strain is different from other strains in that it does not contain the lacIq repressor. Usually, presence of the F' and lacIq is only an advantage if you work with an insert that is potentially toxic to the host cell. If your insert is (potentially) toxic, we recommend using the TOP10F' cells without adding any IPTG. The lacIq repressor will repress expression from the lac promoter and you won't get blue-white screening, but you will still get colonies. This way you can clone a toxic construct.
TOPO® TA cloning® kits are also offered with Mach1™ T1r competent cells. The Mach1™ T1 Phage-Resistant (T1R) E. coli strain is the fastest growing chemically competent strain currently available. Doubling time is approximately 50 minutes, compared with an excess of 74 minutes for other cloning strains. Mach1™ colonies are clearly visible within eight hours of plating the transformation mix, enabling you to plate and pick colonies in the same day. With these cells, there is no need to add IPTG (inducer) for blue/white screening.
Answer Id: 3329
Are the TA or TOPO® TA Cloning® vectors available to purchase without competent cells? What about your Zero Background™, Zero Blunt®, or Zero Blunt® TOPO® Cloning Kits
Most of our cloning vectors are offered in a complete format, which includes competent cells. While in most cases other cells can be used with our vectors, we cannot guarantee the results you will get with our cloning vectors if you use your own competent cells. For this reason, most TOPO® TA Cloning® vectors can only purchased in a complete kit with cells, although there are a few exceptions. Non-TOPO® vectors are generally available in multiple formats, with and without cells. To get the most current information on available products, visit the Cloning section of our website under Products & Service.
Zero Background™ and Zero Blunt® vectors are available without competent cells provided, but you should especially careful in choosing competent cells to use with them. These vectors contain the ccdB gene for efficient negative selection of clones without insert, and some E. coli strains are not compatible with the mechanism of negative selection by the lethal activity of the ccdB gene product. In particular, cells with the F' episome have a ccd locus containing the ccdA gene, which prevents ccdB protein cell-killing. Therefore, cells without the F' episome are recommended so that only the CcdB protein will be expressed, and its cell-killing ability will not be inhibited or reduced by CcdA.
Answer Id: 3331
Do PCR products produced with Stoffel fragment have sufficient A-overhangs to work with TA Cloning® kit?
Yes. Stoffel fragment is a 61 kDa modified form of AmpliTaq® DNA Polymerase that lacks 5' to 3' exonuclease activity. It is more thermostable than AmpliTaq® DNA Polymerase, giving it improved performance at the higher denaturating temperatures used with templates that have secondary structure. It more active over a wider range of magnesium concentrations (2 mM to 10 mM MgCl2) than Taq polymerase.
Answer Id: 3332