Animal Diseases –
Bovine / Cattle

Bluetongue Virus (BTV)

Epidemiology
Bluetongue, or catarrhal fever, is caused by a double-stranded RNA virus of the genus Orbivirus and family Reoviridae. It is a noncontagious disease transmitted by insects to wild and domesticated ruminants, especially sheep.

Signs
Seven or eight days after infection, sheep develop acute signs—high temperature, lethargy, and self-isolation from the herd. Shortly after the rise in temperature, the buccal mucosa becomes red and swollen, and large volumes of foamy saliva are produced. The tongue swells up and in some cases turns blue (hence the name of the disease). The crown of the unguis becomes red and painful. Affected animals can limp and ewes may abort. In most cases, growth is retarded and there is coat loss. Severely affected sheep may die eight to 10 days into the infection.

In cattle and goats, the infection is usually asymptomatic. When there are signs in cattle, the most common are hyperthermia, abortion towards the end of gestation (in the eighth month), edema (of the udders, teats, vulva, and hocks), and erythema (mucosa, teats, and udders).

The spread of BTV
Bluetongue was first reported in 1876 in South Africa. While it used to be believed that is was confined to Africa, over the last 10 years the disease has spread to Asia, the southern United States, Australia, and southern Europe. A total of 24 different serotypes of the bluetongue virus are known, of which eight have been reported in Europe (serotypes 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 11, and 16).

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

PCR

BVDTop

Epidemiology
The BVD virus is a small, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus Pestivirus. Two other animal viruses belong to this genus, namely the viruses that cause border disease (BD) in sheep and classical swine fever (CSF) in pigs.The virus that causes bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) was first identified in 1946. The disease is found throughout the world and its prevalence among animals exposed to the virus ranges from 30–80% in different countries and regions.

BVD impacts fertility in the herd
The infection compromises the herd's fertility and induces the return of heat following death of the embryo when the cow is infected between the first and second months of gestation. Abortion and birth defects are possible throughout gestation.

BVD-PI animals serve as a reservoir of infection
A common consequence of prenatal infection by members of this viral genus is the birth of infected offspring that are permanently immunotolerant (BVD-persistent infection (BVD-PI)), which disseminate the virus throughout the herd. BVD-PI animals (i.e., those infected between the second and the fourth months of gestation) carry the virus throughout their lifetime and constantly secrete large numbers of viral particles. This group therefore constitutes a major source of infection for the rest of the herd. In addition, BVD-PI animals sooner or later develop the fatal form of BVD called mucosal disease (MD). The number of BVD-PI animals in an infected herd is of the order of 1% (although the percentage can be as high as 27%) and detecting them is primordial in the control of Pestivirus disease.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price (USD) Qty
4413938 VetMAX™-Gold BVDV Detection Kit 100 reactions 537.00
B12S LSI VetMAX™ BVDV Screening Real-Time PCR Kit 100 tests Contact Us  

ChlamydiosisTop

In ruminants, chlamydiosis is a contagious disease caused by a bacterium that also infects birds and humans. It can cause abortion, premature delivery, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, and arthritis in ruminants. The infection can be transmitted to the newborn, young, or adult ruminant by the large numbers of bacteria excreted in fetal envelopes and fluids, feces, urine, and milk, although the main route of infection is via the inhalation of contaminated aerosols. Chlamydia taxonomy was revised by Everett in 1999. In the new classification, the species are divided between two main genera:

  • The genus Chlamydia, which includes C. trachomatis (humans), C. suis (pigs), and C. muridarum (mice and hamsters)
  • The genus Chlamydophila, which consists of six species, namely Cp. abortus (mammals), Cp. psittaci (birds), Cp. felis (cats), Cp. caviae (guinea pigs), Cp. pecorum (mammals), and Cp. pneumoniae (humans)

In ruminants, two species have been identified: Cp. abortus (which causes abortion) and Cp. pecorum (which causes asymptomatic gut infection, pneumonia, conjunctivitis, arthritis, abortion, and infertility). In pregnant women, C. abortus can also induce abortion with serious complications.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

PCR

Q feverTop

Epidemiology
Q (Query) fever is an ubiquitous zoonosis that is found throughout the world (apart from New Zealand). It is caused by Coxiella burnetii, an obligate intracellular bacterium that can infect many different animal species, including ruminants, dogs, cats, birds, and arthropods as well as humans. In ruminants (which are believed to be the main reservoir for human infection), the disease is mainly associated with reproductive dysfunction. It usually remains asymptomatic and is not usually screened for unless an animal has aborted several times or shows reproductive problems. Coxiella burnetii colonizes the placenta and causes premature delivery, low birth weight, and abortion.

Impact of Q fever on humans
The main route of infection in humans is through the inhalation of contaminated aerosols, but pregnant women should not drink unpasteurized milk or consume dairy products made with untreated milk. Q fever often goes unnoticed because it can be mistaken for an influenza-like syndrome. The consequences can be dramatic in pregnant women (abortion or premature delivery) and in immunodeficient subjects or patients with valvular heart disease.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

PCR

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)Top

Epidemiology
IBR is caused by a herpesvirus (BHV-1) that infects the airways, causing respiratory tract problems (tracheitis and rhinitis), fever, abortion, and infertility. It can lead to death when the disease rapidly spreads through a herd. IBR is transmitted through direct contact via respiratory, ocular, and genital secretions.

The IBR virus has an immunosuppressive effect, and infection can predispose the host to secondary bacterial infection. Infection can also be latent: although the primary infection may appear to be cleared, the virus is still present in the lymph nodes and can be reactivated to spread throughout the body.

Incidence and prevalence
Although the incidence and prevalence of the disease varies on different continents, it is present throughout the world and nearly 50% of all adult bovine herds have already been exposed.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

PCR

NeosporosisTop

Epidemiology
Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite first observed in dogs, in which it causes myositis and encephalitis. However, in the 1990s it was observed that Neospora was a major cause of abortion in cows, usually between the fourth and seventh months of gestation. Depending on the number of infected cows in the herd, the abortion rate ranges from 5–30%; the higher rates are characterized by serial abortions occurring in less than a month.

Transmission
It is not fully understood how the parasite is transmitted, but the main route seems to be from mother to offspring, with at least 80% of the calves born to seropositive cows infected. In addition, it has been suggested that dogs may be involved in the transmission of Neospora to bovines. This infection is known on all continents and is the leading cause of bovine abortion in some countries (ahead of BVD and IBR).

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
NEOP50 LSI VetMAX™ Neospora caninum Real-Time PCR Kit 50 tests Contact Us  

Paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease)Top

Epidemiology
Paratuberculosis (paraTB) is a chronic, contagious infection caused by Mycobacterium avium sub. paratuberculosis (MAP), which belongs to the same family as the causative agent of tuberculosis. This incurable disease affects bovines, caprines, and other wild and domesticated ruminants.

Mycobacterium paratuberculosis is particularly hardy and is excreted in great numbers in the feces of infected animals. Infection occurs early in life through the ingestion of feed, water, or maternal milk contaminated with fecal material. The disease is highly complex and depends on many factors. How the disease will progress depends on the resistance of the bacillus, the rate of its excretion into the environment, latent phases, and antibody responses (which are sometimes delayed).

Signs
The signs—chronic inflammation of the intestine, mesenteric lymph node lesions, diarrhea, weight loss, and edema—usually appear in animals of over two years of age with an advanced stage of the disease.

Removing infected animals is key to controlling the spread
Control of paraTB depends on identifying and removing infected animals: the main diagnostic tools are PCR and ELISA tests, as well as stool culture.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

PCR

Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD)Top

Epidemiology
EHD is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by a virus belonging to the Orbivirus genus of the Reoviridae family (like the bluetongue virus). Between eight and 10 different serotypes have been identified.

Transmission
The virus is more-or-less exclusively transmitted by the bite of a small hematophagous dipteran of the genus Culicoides in the Ceratopogonidae family. The vector becomes infected when it feeds on an infected animal and then the virus replicates until it reaches the density necessary for transmission to another susceptible animal.

Signs
The EHD virus can infect bovines and cause signs similar to those of bluetongue (i.e., fever, erosive lesions and ulcers of the oropharyngeal mucosae, stiffness, collapse, and cutaneous edema). In gestating cows, infection can induce abortion or hydranencephaly if the infection appears between 70 and 120 days of gestation.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
REHDV LSI™ Internal Reference EHDV—Serum 100 tests Contact Us  
VETEHDV2 LSIVet™ Ruminant EHDV Serum ELISA Kit 2 x 96 well plates Contact Us  

PCR

Bovine tuberculosis (TB)Top

Epidemiology
Bovine tuberculosis is a well-known zoonosis that is a major problem throughout the world. It is a chronic disease that affects bovines and certain wild animals. The main causative agent, Mycobacterium bovis, belongs to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC), which includes human and animal pathogens such as M. caprae and M. tuberculosis.

Transmission
TB is a contagious disease that is transmitted as a result of exposure to infected animals. The usual route of transmission is inhalation of a contaminated aerosol (when droplets are projected as a result of coughing), but transmission is also possible through the consumption of unpasteurized milk from infected cows. Because the disease progresses slowly, an infected animal may have passed the bacterium on to other animals in the herd before it shows any signs.

Signs
It causes deterioration in general condition (with fever, weakness, and wasting), usually with coughing and ultimately death.

TB is a major public health problem in affected countries
TB is a major public health problem in affected countries and has serious social and economic repercussions, with effects on the international exchange of animals and animal products. Although bovines are considered as the natural host of M. bovis, the disease has been reported in many other wild and domesticated species, including ovines, caprines, equids, camelids, pigs, rodents, primates, and felines.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

PCR

ToxoplasmosisTop

Epidemiology
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic infection due to a protozoon, Toxoplasma gondii. Felids (cats) are the only known definitive hosts for the sexual stages of this parasite and represent the main infectious reservoir, although ruminants can act as intermediate hosts (warm-blooded animals).

Impact on the herd
In a hitherto unexposed herd, primary infection results in a wave of abortions, the characteristics of which will depend on the stage of gestation. Infection in the first two months of gestation (under 50 days) usually causes death of the fetus and abortion. If infection occurs at between 70 and 90 days of gestation, most of the fetuses die and those that do survive delivery die within hours. If infection occurs after 120 days of gestation, the calf is born apparently healthy but is immunized.

In humans, toxoplasmosis poses no threat to most immunocompetent subjects, but it can be dangerous for seronegative pregnant women and people with weakened immune defenses.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
TXP50 LSI VetMAX™ Toxoplasma gondii Real-Time PCR Kit 50 tests Contact Us  

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)Top

Epidemiology
Ovine respiratory syncytial virus is a pneumovirus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. It is closely related to human RSV, which often infects the airways of children. Both are single-stranded RNA enveloped viruses. In bovines, RSV causes respiratory infections in young animals and dairy cows. The virus is mainly present in the lower airways (the lobes of the lungs), where it damages ciliated epithelial cells that normally protect the lung against microbial invasion. RSV infection often leads to secondary bacterial infection, notably with Pasteurella haemolytica and Corynebacterium pyogenes.

Signs
The signs of the disease are hyperthermia, coughing, nasal and ocular discharge, anorexia, and dyspnea (if the disease is progressing towards fatal pneumonia). In dairy cows, milk production falls off.

Transmission
RSV is transmitted by direct contact through nasal secretions, and its spread is favored by proximity, for example in winter stabling, and as a result of licking in the milking room.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
RRSV LSI™ Internal Reference RSV—Serum 100 tests Contact Us  

PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
TRSVPI350 LSI VetMAX™ Triplex bRSV & PI3 Real-Time PCR Kit 50 tests Contact Us  

Parainfluenza 3 (PI3)Top

Epidemiology
Parainfluenza virus type 3 (PI3) is an RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family, which is extremely common in livestock throughout the world. PI3 has been detected in both respiratory and digestive conditions, and it causes respiratory problems in young bovines. PI3 is also considered a cofactor in conditions associated with infection by certain bacteria (Mycoplasma bovis and Pasteurella haemolytica), and other viruses (including those that cause BVD and IBR).

Signs
The signs of the disease are hyperthermia, coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, anorexia, dyspnea, and diarrhea. PI3 is also immunosuppressive, and infected animals are predisposed to secondary infections.

Transmission
PI3 is usually transmitted in nasal secretions, and its transmission is favored by animal transport (direct contact, poor ventilation, and a stagnant atmosphere). To confirm PI3 infection, serological testing is strongly recommended.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
SPIV2 LSIVet™ Bovine PI3 Serum ELISA Kit 1 x 96 well plate Contact Us  

PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
TRSVPI350 LSI VetMAX™ Triplex bRSV & PI3 Real-Time PCR Kit 50 tests Contact Us  

Bovine MycoplasmosisTop

Epidemiology
Mycoplasmas—most of which are host-specific—cause chronic diseases that progress slowly in humans and animals. The bacterium Mycoplasma agalactiae is a common pathogen of small ruminants and is of major importance in veterinary medicine. In ovines this disease is always due to M. agalactiae, but other Mycoplasma species, M. mycoides and M. capricolum, can cause a similar disease in goats.

Signs
Mycoplasma agalactiae is the causative agent of contagious agalaxia, the main form of mycoplasmosis in European ovines and caprines that has a serious impact on the dairy industry. Antibiotics often fail to eradicate these infections, and in food animals mycoplasmosis is responsible for substantial economic losses.

Transmission
Infection is often oral or mammary, with an incubation period ranging from two weeks to two months.

Closely Related to M. agalactiae
M. bovis, which is closely related to M. agalactiae, causes respiratory and mammary pathology in bovines and is also important in economic terms (causing calf pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis). These two pathogens induce similar signs in their respective hosts, and they are difficult to differentiate using conventional diagnostic methods because they are so closely related.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price (USD) Qty
MPBO50 LSI VetMAX™ Mycoplasma bovis Real-Time PCR Kit 50 tests Contact Us  

Neonatal GastroenteritisTop

Epidemiology
Diarrhea is a major cause of death in calves and other young ruminants. This form of neonatal gastroenteritis is caused by ingested microorganisms that reach the gut. Many different microorganisms can cause neonatal diarrhea, including viruses (rotavirus, coronavirus), bacteria (Salmonella, enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli K99), and protozoa (Cryptosporidium parvum, coccidia).

Signs
Viral infection often paves the way for bacterial superinfection, which exacerbates the problem and prejudices the outcome. The first signs of diarrhea are loss of appetite, abdominal retraction and tightness, and lethargy. In animals, diarrhea can quickly lead to dehydration followed by paralysis, circulatory failure, and death.

Laboratory testing needed for diagnosis
The causative agent of calf diarrhea cannot be identified on the basis of the symptoms alone; laboratory testing is required. The best prophylaxis against neonatal diarrhea is to ensure that the calf is given an adequate dose of colostrum as soon as possible after delivery.

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

ELISA

Catalog # Name Size List Price (USD) Qty
LSIDTT1 LSIVet™ Tetravalent Calf Enteritis Feces ELISA Kit 12 tests Contact Us  

PCR

Schmallenberg VirusTop

Epidemiology
The Schmallenberg virus belongs to the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyaviridae and is closely related to Akabane, Aino, and Shamonda viruses. This virus was first identified in November 2011 in Germany. It was found in several samples coming from bovine and ovine hosts showing atypical symptoms, not characteristic of known diseases at the time.

Signs
This virus induces weak clinical symptoms affecting the global health of the animal, such as hyperthermia, loss of appetite, decreased milk production, and in some cases, diarrhea. Infection of female ruminants during gestation can also result in the birth of malformed animals (e.g., hydrocephalus).

Diagnostics
Virus detection is optimally performed using the brain of an aborted fetus, but the virus can also be detected in blood, serum, and the spleen (FLI—German National Reference Laboratory).

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.