Animal Diseases –
Common

West Nile virus (WNV)

Epidemiology
West Nile virus is a Flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. This virus can cause fatal neurological diseases in humans and horses (in about 1% of infections). Birds are the main reservoir of the virus. The monitoring of this virus by health authorities has helped to highlight an increase in severe forms of the disease in the late 1990s. Indeed, several human epidemics occurred in Europe, North America, and around the Mediterranean basin. Also, several epidemics affecting only horses have been described in Europe since 1998.

West Nile virus presents a significant variability in its nucleotidic sequence: lineage 1 is responsible for the vast majority of recent outbreaks and epidemics, while lineage 2 was responsible for the epidemics and equine epizootics in Hungary in 2008.

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PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
WNPEXO50 LSI VetMAX™ West Nile Virus Real-Time PCR Kit, dual IPC 50 tests Contact Us  

LeptospirosisTop

Epidemiology
Leptospirosis is an emerging worldwide zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira, which are extremely mobile, helical spirochaetes found mainly in humid environments where they are harbored by rodents, their main reservoirs.

This zoonosis has a complex epidemiology, but the renal excretion of the leptospires by infected animals is a key element of their persistence in the environment. Once excreted, the leptospires contaminate the soil and water. These then become an important source of indirect transmission of the disease to humans and animals via contact with the skin and mucous membranes.

Signs
The clinical picture of leptospirosis varies due to the diversity of the Leptospira genus and the epidemiology of the disease, ranging from a simple flu-like form (fever, headache, myalgia) to liver and kidney damage, which makes clinical diagnosis difficult.

Diagnosis relies on bacterial isolation
The biological diagnosis relies on bacterial isolation from biological samples (blood, urine, CSF), but takes 10 days to two months, which limits its usefulness, particularly in serious forms of the disease. The Leptospira genus comprises saprophytic (Leptospira biflexa) and pathogenic (Leptospira interrogans) species. The genus is divided into a large number of serovars (at least 230), which are themselves classified into 24 serogroups according to their antigenic types.

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PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
LEPT50 LSI VetMAX™ PathoLept™ Real-Time PCR Kit 50 tests Contact Us  

AnaplasmosisTop

Epidemiology
This virulent, noncontagious disease is caused by bacteria of the genus Anaplasma (small gram-negative bacteria) that parasitize blood cells. Infection is transmitted by a tick from a carrier to a healthy animal. Prevention focuses on vector control, and the disease is treated with antibiotics.

Anaplasma marginale proliferates in red blood cells, but Anaplasma species that were formerly assigned to the genus Ehrlichia (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum or Ehrlichia equi, the causative agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis) have a tropism for granulocytes and, to a lesser extent, lymphocytes and monocytes.

Anaplasmosis is severe disease in bovines
Anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma marginale (bovine anaplasmosis) is a severe disease in bovines and many other large ruminants (i.e., buffalo, fallow deer, deer, camel), but infection is silent in sheep and goats. It causes severe anemia, abortion, weight loss, and jaundice, and can be fatal. Survivors of the acute phase of the disease become carriers of the bacterium for life. Bovine anaplasmosis is an ubiquitous disease, but in Europe it is mainly found in the countries around the Mediterranean basin.

Anaplasma phagocytophilum can cause reduced production
Anaplasmosis due to Anaplasma phagocytophilum, called “tick fever” in ovines and “pasture fever” in bovines, is endemic and seasonal. It manifests as high fever, anorexia, lethargy lasting a few days, weight loss, and a drop-off in milk production. Other possible signs are respiratory problems, abortion, and male infertility. The incubation period is 3–6 days in ovines and 4–17 days in bovines. Although the disease is rarely fatal, the animals carry the bacterium for months and the associated profound, sustained immunosuppression predisposes them to secondary infection. Anaplasmosis is most common in Europe, but has also been reported in India and South Africa. The disease naturally affects ruminants, both wild (cervids and bovids) and domesticated (notably sheep and cows).

Regulatory requirements vary by country; products may not be available in your geographic area.

PCR

Catalog # Name Size List Price Qty
ANAP50 LSI VetMAX™ Anaplasma phagocytophilum Real-Time PCR Kit 50 tests Contact Us  

SalmonellosisTop

Epidemiology
Salmonella is an enterobacterium that infects humans, other mammals, birds (poultry), and cold-blooded animals (reptiles). Many different varieties—referred to as serovars—are known, the most common being Salmonella typhi, S. typhimurium, and S. enteritidis. When orally transmitted they cause a number of diseases, including typhoid and paratyphoid fever, gastroenteritis, and food poisoning (common in institutions). The main routes of infection in humans are contaminated water (especially S. typhi) and food (eggs, meat, dairy products, and raw vegetables). Family pets (especially tortoises) can also transmit the bacterium.

Signs
Salmonella proliferates in the gut, and massive numbers are found in the excreta of infected and sick animals. These can survive for weeks in the external environment, and they tend to persist in an infectious form in animal husbandries. In poultry, salmonellosis is usually asymptomatic but occasionally young birds can die of diarrhea. In ruminants and pigs, Salmonella can cause abortion or severe diarrhea with fever and collapse; death is possible.