Animal Diseases –
Porcine / Swine

Lawsonia intracellularis

Epidemiology
L. intracellularis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative bacillus that is the infectious agent of proliferative enteritis (PE). PE is most common in pigs, but it can also affect horses, dogs, and rabbits. In pigs, PE tends to strike animals of between 6 and 20 weeks of age, but it can also affect younger animals or animals of several years of age.

PE is usually chronic, causing gray diarrhea and retarded growth. Acute forms are sometimes seen, with gastrointestinal bleeding (soft, black stools) followed by death. PE is found in pigs all over the world and has major economic impact.

Signs
PE corresponds to a set of disorders characterized by thickening of the mucosa of the small (and sometimes the large) intestine due to proliferation of gut epithelial cells. The resultant epithelium is immature with no goblet cells, and sometimes shows traumatic mucosal damage.

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Swine influenzaTop

Epidemiology
Swine influenza is a highly contagious viral infection of pigs. The infection is transmitted when an animal comes into contact with secretions containing viral particles, notably in aerosols generated by coughing, sneezing, and the projection of nasal discharges.

Signs
Swine influenza virus (SIV) causes a respiratory disease characterized by coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, high rectal temperature, lethargy, difficulty breathing, and loss of appetite. In some cases, SIV infection can cause reproductive problems and abortion.

Signs and nasal excretion of the virus can begin within 24 hours of infection. Although mortality tends to be low, morbidity can reach 100% and secondary bacterial superinfection can exacerbate the signs of SIV infection.

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Type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2)Top

Epidemiology
PCV2 is a DNA virus classified in the Circovirus genus of the Circoviridae family. This virus is now recognized as the main infectious agent involved in the development of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). PCV2 is mainly excreted in the feces and urine, but is also found in bronchial and nasal secretions. Its transmission is mainly horizontal through healthy carriers and sick animals.

Signs
The main signs are wasting, shortness of breath, diarrhea, and jaundice, which are often associated with superinfecting bacteria. PMWS strikes weaned piglets between 5 and 18 weeks of age, but reproductive problems—abortion, stillbirth, and premature delivery—have also been observed in sows.

Prevalence and impact on the herd
PMWS is found throughout the world (many countries in Europe, North America, and Asia) and causes heavy economic losses because of its impact on breeding performance.

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Aujeszky's diseaseTop

Epidemiology
Aujeszky’s disease is a contagious viral disease caused by a herpesvirus. The most common form is an acute, febrile syndrome that mainly affects pigs (the main reservoir for the virus), though many other animal species are also susceptible. The virus spreads to the airways, nervous system, and fetus. It is widespread throughout the world and its effects have considerable economic impact.

Signs
The clinical picture depends on the infected animal's age and physiological development. In piglets, it causes nervous problems (circling and fits) with death soon ensuing. In growing animals, the main effects are respiratory and gastrointestinal problems with retarded growth. In sows, reproductive problems such as abortion, return to heat, and small litters have been observed. After exposure to the airborne virus, it can remain latent in the body, ready for subsequent reactivation at times of stress or immunosuppression.

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Classical swine fever (CSF or PPC)Top

Epidemiology
CSF is considered the second most serious of all contagious diseases of pigs and wild boars, after aphthous fever; it is a major threat to swine production with serious socioeconomic consequences.

The disease is caused by an enveloped RNA virus of the genus Pestivirus in the Flaviviridae family. CSF cannot be transmitted to humans and manifests in different ways according to the virulence of the infecting virus and the animal's stage of development.

Signs
A super-acute form can cause death within 48 hours with practically no signs, but the more common acute form has an initial phase characterized by high fever (up to 42°C) during which time the animal is lethargic, stops eating, and develops conjunctivitis with a purulent ocular discharge. The disease also causes gastrointestinal and respiratory problems, hematological imbalance, and neurological disorders. The animal dies within 5–15 days. Some of these signs can be confused with those of many other porcine diseases, which makes CSF difficult to diagnose.

The chronic form of the disease is even more insidious because the signs are mild and infected animals may survive for weeks or months. Moreover, the presence of other concurrent diseases or infections may complicate differential diagnosis.

Disease-free status requires serological testing
In all cases, laboratory tests (virology and/or serology) are essential to either confirm or rule out suspected CSF.

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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)Top

Epidemiology
PRRS is a highly contagious disease found in swine (pigs and wild boars). It is caused by a virus belonging to the Arterivirus family that also contains the causative agents of equine arteritis and simian hemorrhagic fever. The PRRS virus is a small (50–60 nm), enveloped RNA virus with at least two different membrane proteins at its surface, which are probably the antigens that elicit the serological responses detected in infected pigs.

The PRRS virus has immunosuppressive activity and kills the macrophages in the lung inside which it replicates. This probably helps compromise pulmonary resistance to other infectious viruses and bacteria. Viral particles are secreted in all bodily secretions, including nasal secretions, feces, and sperm, as well as in aborted fetal tissue and placenta. This disease is spread throughout the world and affects domesticated pigs in particular.

Signs
The virus causes respiratory and influenza-like symptoms as well as fertility problems, abortion, and the birth of runts.

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PCR

Sku Name Size Price Qty
4405548 TaqMan® NA and EU PRRSV and Xeno™ RNA Controls 1 kit USD 98.00

BrachyspirosisTop

Epidemiology
a motile, spiral-shaped bacterium, is the causative agent of porcine dysentery (also known as haemorrhagic diarrhea or haemorrhagic enteritis). It infects pigs but can also cause transient asymptomatic infection of other animal species such as rats, mice, dogs, and birds if they come into contact with pig feces.

The disease is found in all countries in which pig breeding is developed. It mainly strikes pigs in the fattening stage, although sows and weaned piglets can also show signs. The most common route of contamination is the introduction of an infected animal into a unit, but mice may also play an important role because they can contract the infection from a small inoculum (102 CFU) and then continue excreting the bacterium for six months.

Signs
The main signs of brachyspirosis are diarrhea, weight loss, delayed growth and, in the most severe forms, dehydration.

Economic Impact
Porcine dysentery has serious economic repercussions because of its mortality (up to 50% in a given unit) and, to an even greater extent, delayed growth (slaughter can be delayed by 28 days), and the cost of treatment. In addition, cured animals constitute a danger since they may still be excreting the bacterium.

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PasteurellosisTop

Epidemiology
Pasteurella multocida is a nonmotile, asporous, encapsulated, gram-negative coccobacillus. It is the most important species in veterinary medicine. It is a parasite or saprophyte of the respiratory and digestive mucosae of diverse animal species. It usually becomes pathogenic at times of stress.

Found throughout the world, this species causes avian cholera, atrophic rhinitis in pigs, rabbits, and small ruminants, haemorrhagic septicaemia in bovids, pneumonia in ruminants and pigs, and respiratory problems in carnivores, rodents, and lagomorphs. Toxinogenic (dermatonecrotic) P. multocida expresses a protein that breaks down connective tissue in the airways of pigs and rabbits.

Signs
The main signs of brachyspirosis are diarrhea, weight loss, delayed growth and, in the most severe forms, dehydration.

Economic Impact
Porcine dysentery has serious economic repercussions because of its mortality (up to 50% in a given unit) and, to an even greater extent, delayed growth (slaughter can be delayed by 28 days), and the cost of treatment. In addition, cured animals constitute a danger since they may still be excreting the bacterium.

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ParvovirosisTop

Epidemiology
Stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, and infertility (SMEDI) is a common contagious disease in swine that is found in many countries around the world. It is caused by the single-stranded DNA porcine parvovirus (PPV), which belongs to the Parvoviridae family. The infection starts in one or more fetuses and then spreads inside the uterus to most of the litter, so live piglets can be delivered together with mummified fetuses.

Signs
After infection of a naive pregnant sow, PPV causes reproductive problems with stillbirth, mummification, embryonic death, infertility, irregular return of heat, and small litter size.

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