Amine-reactive, environment-sensitive fluorophores—Table 1.13

Fluorophore Abs * Em * Succinimidyl Ester Other Notes
Cascade Yellow402545C10164 
  • Fluorescence emission spectrum shifts to shorter wavelengths in nonpolar solvents
Dansyl335518D6104 (X)D21 (SC)
  • Sulfonyl chloride is nonfluorescent until it reacts with amines
  • Weak fluorescence in aqueous solutions
Dapoxyl395601D10161D10160 (SC)
  • Very low fluorescence in water
  • Large Stokes shifts (up to ~200 nm)
  • Large extinction coefficients of Dapoxyl derivatives in some solvents ref
NBD466535S1167 (X)C20260 (AH)
F486 (AH)
  • NBD amine derivatives have low fluorescence in water; emission spectra and quantum yields in other solvents are variable ref
PyMPO415570S6110 
  • Fluorescence emission spectrum shifts to shorter wavelengths in nonpolar solvents
Pyrene340376P130
P6114 (CASE)
 P24 (SC)
  • Forms excited-state dimers (excimers) that emit at longer wavelengths (~470 nm) than the lone excited fluorophore
  • Extremely long fluorescence lifetime (can be >100 ns)
Absorption (Abs) and Emission (Em) maxima, in nm, are for conjugates.

(AH) = Aryl halide.
(CASE) = Cysteic acid separating the dye and the SE.
(SC) = Sulfonyl chloride.
(X) = Aminohexanoyl spacer separating the dye and the SE.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.