Table 1.13 Amine-reactive, environment-sensitive fluorophores.

Fluorophore Abs * Em * Succinimidyl Ester Other Notes
Cascade Yellow 402 545 C10164  
  • Fluorescence emission spectrum shifts to shorter wavelengths in nonpolar solvents
Dansyl 335 518 D6104 (X) D21 (SC)
  • Sulfonyl chloride is nonfluorescent until it reacts with amines
  • Weak fluorescence in aqueous solutions
Dapoxyl 395 601 D10161 D10160 (SC)
  • Very low fluorescence in water
  • Large Stokes shifts (up to ~200 nm)
  • Large extinction coefficients of Dapoxyl derivatives in some solvents ref
NBD 466 535 S1167 (X) C20260 (AH)
F486 (AH)
  • NBD amine derivatives have low fluorescence in water; emission spectra and quantum yields in other solvents are variable ref
PyMPO 415 570 S6110  
  • Fluorescence emission spectrum shifts to shorter wavelengths in nonpolar solvents
Pyrene 340 376 P130
P6114 (CASE)
 P24 (SC)
  • Forms excited-state dimers (excimers) that emit at longer wavelengths (~470 nm) than the lone excited fluorophore
  • Extremely long fluorescence lifetime (can be >100 ns)
Absorption (Abs) and Emission (Em) maxima, in nm, are for conjugates.

(AH) = Aryl halide.
(CASE) = Cysteic acid separating the dye and the SE.
(SC) = Sulfonyl chloride.
(X) = Aminohexanoyl spacer separating the dye and the SE.
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.