Characteristics and selected applications of Molecular Probes slow-response probes—Table 22.2

Dyes (Cat. No.) Structure (Charge) Optical Response Selected Applications
DiOC2(3) (D14730)
DiOC5(3) (D272)
DiOC6(3) (D273)
DiSC3(5) (D306)
DiIC1(5) (H14700)
Carbocyanine (cationic)SLOW; fluorescence response to depolarization depends on the staining concentration and detection method
  • Bacterial infection ref
  • Flow cytometry assays of membrane potential ref
  • Membrane potential in intact yeast cells ref
  • Mitochondrial activity ref
  • Oxidative stress ref
JC-1 (T3168)
JC-9 (D22421)
Carbocyanine (cationic)SLOW; fluorescence emission ratio 585/520 nm increases upon membrane hyperpolarization
  • Apoptotic mitochondrial depolarization ref
  • Ca2+ regulation by mitochondria ref
  • Mitochondrial function in brain slices ref and cultured neurons ref
  • Mitochondrial response to glutamate excitotoxicity ref
  • Mitochondrial response to oxidative stress ref
Tetramethylrhodamine methyl and ethyl esters (T668, T669)
Rhodamine 123 (R302, R22420)
Rhodamine (cationic)SLOW; used to obtain unbiased images of potential-dependent dye distribution
  • Ca2+ regulation by mitochondria ref
  • Mitochondrial permeability transition ref
  • Oxidative stress ref
  • Stem cells ref
Oxonol V (O266)
Oxonol VI (O267)
Oxonol (anionic)SLOW; fluorescence decreases upon membrane hyperpolarization
  • Ion channels and electrogenic pumps ref
  • Liposomes ref
  • Plant physiology ref
DiBAC4(3) (B438, B24570)
DiBAC4(5) (B436)
DiSBAC2(3) (B413)
Oxonol (anionic)SLOW; fluorescence decreases upon membrane hyperpolarization
  • ATP-sensitive K+ channel activation ref
  • Combined potentiometric and Ca2+ measurements ref
  • Confocal imaging of membrane potential ref
  • Flow cytometry assays of cell viability ref
  • Primary vascular smooth muscle cells ref
Merocyanine 540 (M24571)MerocyanineFAST/SLOW (biphasic response)
  • Membrane lipid asymmetry ref
  • Membrane potentials in mitochondria ref and skeletal muscle ref
  • Photodynamic therapy
  • Structure of membrane surfaces ref
For Research Use Only. Not for use in diagnostic procedures.