SYBR Safe DNA Gel Stain—Note 8.1
SYBR Safe stain tests negative in standardized mammalian cell tests for genotoxicity
Certified testing has shown that SYBR Safe DNA gel stain does not induce transformations in primary cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells when compared with solvent alone (Table 1). This test has a high concordance (>80%) with rodent carcinogenesis assays; thus, a negative test strongly indicates that the SYBR Safe stain is noncarcinogenic. In contrast, ethidium bromide tests positive in the SHE cell assay, consistent with its known activity as a strong mutagen.
In addition, SYBR Safe stain does not cause mutations in mouse lymphoma cells at the TK locus, nor does it induce chromosomal aberrations in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes, with or without S9 metabolic activation, using standardized tests with appropriate controls (Table 1).
Table 1. Summary of mammalian cell test results for SYBR Safe DNA gel stain.
|Test *||Cell Type||With S9 Activation †||Without S9 Activation|
|Transformation||Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells||NA||Negative|
|Chromosomal aberrations||Cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes||Negative||Negative|
|Forward mutation||L5178YTK+/- mouse lymphoma cells||Negative||Negative|
|* All tests were performed by Covance Laboratories Inc., Vienna, VA, an independent testing laboratory. † Mammalian S9 fraction obtained from Aroclor 1254–induced rat liver. NA = Not applicable.|
SYBR Safe stain is less mutagenic than ethidium bromide in the standard Ames test
Compared with ethidium bromide, SYBR Safe DNA gel stain causes fewer mutations in the Ames test, as measured in several different strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Weakly positive results for SYBR Safe stain in this test occurred in four out of seven strains and only with activation by a mammalian S9 fraction (Figure 1).
Figure 1. Summary of Ames test results for mutagenicity of SYBR Safe DNA gel stain and ethidium bromide. Samples were pretreated with a mammalian S9 fraction and then tested using the indicated test strain. With strains TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102, an increase in revertants of more than twofold over background is a positive result for mutagenicity in this test. With strains TA1535, TA1537 and TA1538, an increase in revertants of more than threefold over background is a positive result. All tests were performed by Covance Laboratories, Inc., Vienna, VA, an independent testing laboratory.
SYBR Safe stain is not classified as hazardous waste.
SYBR Safe DNA gel stain has been extensively tested for environmental safety. According to the test results (Table 2), this stain is not classified as hazardous waste under U.S. Federal regulations (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)). Contact your safety officer for proper disposal procedures.
Table 2. Environmental safety test results.
|Ignitability||EPA 1010||Not ignitable (>212°F)|
|Corrosivity||EPA 150.1||Not corrosive (pH = 8.25)|
|Reactivity||EPA 9010B/9030A||No reactivity detected|
|Corrosivity (by Corrositex)||DOT-E 10904||Category 2 noncorrosive|
|Aquatic toxicity||Fathead minnow CA Title 22 acute screening||Not classified as hazardous or toxic to aquatic life|
|* All tests were independently confirmed by AMEC Earth and Environmental San Diego Bioassay Laboratory, San Diego, CA.|