Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG is designed as a solid support for simple and efficient binding of immunoglobulins (Ig) or other target molecules. The sheep anti-rabbit IgG bound to the surface of the beads will bind defined antigens via a rabbit primary antibody. The size of the beads (2.8 μm) makes them particularly suitable for isolation of antibodies (Ab) and their target proteins.
The beads can also be used for cell isolation, but the larger 4.5 μm Dynabeads® are more frequently used for this application. Using a magnet (Dynal® MPC™, Magnetic Particle Concentrator), the beads allow isolation and subsequent handling of target molecules in a highly specific manner. The beads are added directly to the sample containing your target antibody/antigen.
After a short incubation allowing affinity capture of the target, the beads are pulled to the side of the test-tube by th use of a magnet, allowing aspiration of unbound material. Alternatively, an indirect approach can be of benefit when the concentration of antibody is low, the antibody-antigen affinity is weak or the binding kinetics is slow. In the indirect approach, the primary antibody is allowed to bind to the target in suspension prior to addition of the Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG.
Magnetic separation facilitates easy washing and concentration of the isolated target. The target molecule can be eluted off the beads with conventional elution methods, or used in further downstream applications while still attached to the beads. If your downstream application involves purification and elution of a target protein, you might want to crosslink your primary antibody to the sheep anti-rabbit IgG on the Dynabeads® before immunoprecipitation to prevent co-elution of the primary antibody.
- Magnetic device (Dynal® MPC, Magnetic Particle Concentrator).
- Mixing/rotation device
- Vortex mixer
- Primary antibody
- Test tubes and pipettes
All reagents used should be analytical grade. Isotonic PBS pH 7.2-7.6Invitrogen Dynal® recommends the following PBS (pH 7.4):
NaH2PO4 x H2O 0.16 g
Na2HPO4x 2 H2O 0.98 g
NaCl 8.10 g
Distilled water to 1 litre
PBS/BSA: Add 0.1% BSA fraction V (final conc.) to PBS. 0.02% NaN3 may be added as a preservative for storage, if needed
The Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG should be washed before use to remove preservatives. The washing procedure is facilitated by the use of a magnet. Make sure the beads are thoroughly resuspended to a homogeneous solution before use (in step 2 below).
- Resuspend the Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit thoroughly in the vial by vortexing and/or shaking.
Transfer the required amount of resuspended beads into a tube.
- Place the tube on the magnet for 2 minutes and pipette off the supernatant. Avoid touching the inside wall of the tube (where the beads attract to the magnet) with the pipette tip.
- Remove the tube from the magnet, and resuspend the pellet in an excess volume of washing buffer (see below).
- Repeat step 3 and again resuspend the washed beads in washing buffer. The washed Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG can be resuspended in any chosen volume. A small volume should be chosen (e.g. the volume originally pipetted from the vial) so that a final bead concentration of 1-2 x 107 can be achieved for efficient target isolation.
Separation of Target Ig
- Resuspend the washed Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG well by vortexing or shaking.
- Add the sample containing your target-Ig to the washed beads. Approx. 0.1-1 μg Ig/107 beads may be sufficient for binding.
- Incubate with slow tilt rotation mixing for 30 min or up to 24 hours at 2-8°C.
- Place the test tube on the magnet for 2 minutes and pipette off the supermantant.
- Remove the test tube from the magnet, add washing buffer and resuspend.
- Repeat steps 4 and 5 twice, place the tube on the magnet and remove the supernatant.
- The bound and purified Ig is now ready to be eluted off the beads (see below), or the Ig-coated beads can be used for immunoprecipitation (see below). The latter is done by either adding the coated beads directly to a new sample containing the target protein, or by first covalently crosslinking the primary Ig to the sheep anti-rabbit IgG on the beads.
Elution of Isolated Ig
- Eluting the isolated Ig off the Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG is - in this example - performed by lowering pH using 0.1 M citrate (pH 2-3) as the elution buffer. The degree of acidity needed will depend on the specific Ig, but at pH 3.1 most Ig will be eluted off.
- Add 0.1 M citrate (pH 2-3) to Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG with immobilised Ig.
- Mix well by tilting and rotation for 2 minutes.
- Place the test tube on a magnet and transfer the supernatant, containing purified Ig, to a clean tube.
- Again add 0.1 M citrate (pH 2-3) to the beads to elute any remaining Ig.
- Mix well by tilting and rotation for 2 minutes.
- Place the test tube on a magnet, pipette off the eluate and pool the supernatants containing pure Ig.
- Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG where the Ig has been eluted off can be reused at least five times. For re-use after elution, the beads should immediately be brought to neutral pH using a Na-phosphate buffer. For storage, the beads should be resuspended in a PBS/BSA buffer (see section below).
Bound Ig will be co-eluted along with the target using different elution methods (see below). When isolating antigens, for SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting or autoradiography, the presence of Ig may not disturb the detection system. For other applications such as protein purification or amino acid sequencing, co-elution of the I is not desired. If the presence of Ig will not disturb your detection system, go directly to section below. For applications where co-elution of the Ig is not desired, your primary Ig can be crosslinked to the sheep anti-rabbit IgG as described in section below. If trace amounts of Ig is not crosslinked, this can be removed prior to immunoprecipitation by following the procedure described in section above. After isolation and elution of the target protein, the Ig-coated beads may be reused for immunoprecipitation. If the Ig-coated beads are to be reused, crosslinking is necessary.
Crosslinking Ig to the Beads
The protocol presented here uses 0.2 M triethanolamine pH 8.2. Other non-amine containing buffers with pH 7-9 can also be used.
- Add 1 ml 0.2 M triethanolamine, pH 8.2 to the Dynabeads® M-280 Sheep anti-Rabbit IgG with immobilised Ig. Wash twice using a magnet and 0.2 M triethanolamine, pH 8.2 as the washing buffer (see section above).
- Resuspend the beads in 1 ml of 20 mM DMP (dimetyl pimelimidate dihydrochloride, Pierce #21666) in 0.2 M triethanolamine, pH 8.2 (5.4 mg DMP/ml buffer). This crosslinking solution must be prepared immediately before adding to the beads.
- Incubate with rotational mixing for 30 minutes at 20°C. Place the tube on the magnet and discard the supernatant.
- Remove the tube from the magnet and stop the reaction by resuspending the beads in 1 ml of 50 mM Tris, pH 7.5 and incubate for 15 minutes with rotational mixing.
- Place the tube on the magnet and discard the supernatant.
- Wash the now crosslinked Dynabeads® 3 times with 1 ml PBS/BSA by the use of a magnet (see section above). Pre-elution is optional. Resuspend the beads in chosen volume or add directly to antigen-containing solution. Invitrogen Dynal® can not guarantee the full recovery of your Ig activity, as this varies from Ig to Ig.
Antigen-Binding to Ig-Coated Beads
Binding of protein or other antigen to primary Ig-coated Dynabeads® is dependent on the concentration of the beads, antigen concentration, the affinity of the immobilised Ig and time. Binding is performed at 2-8°C from 10 minutes to 1 hour. Equilibrium antibody-antigen is reached after approximately 1 hour.
- Add sample containing antigen to the beads. For a 100 kD protein, use a volume containing approximate 25 μg target antigen/ml beads to assure an excess of antigen. If dilution of antigen is necessary, PBS or 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7-8) can be used as dilution buffer.
- Incubate with tilting and rotation for one hour. (Incubation times as low as 10 minutes can be used with concentrated protein samples in volumes close to what was originally pipetted from the product vial).
- Place the tube on the magnet for 2 minutes to collect the Ig-coated Dynabeads®-target complex at the tube wall. For viscous samples, double the time on the magnet. Pipette off the supernatant.
- Wash the beads 3 times using 1 ml PBS each time and change buffers by the use of a magnet (see section above).
Target Protein Elution
Conventional elution methods can be applied for the elution of target antigen from the Dynabeads®, and one of the major advantages using Dynabeads® in protein/Ig isolation is the possibility to elute in small volumes. Low pH (2.8–3.5), change in ionic strength, affinity elution, electrophoresis, polarity reducing agents, deforming eluents can be applied, or even boiling the bead-target complex in SDS-PAGE application buffer for direct characterisation of protein on SDS-PAGE.
The method of choice depends on the Ig’s affinity for the specific target protein, stability of target protein and downstream applications and detection methods. Most proteins will be eluted at pH 3.1 following the procedure described under Dynabeads® Ig elution procedure (see section above). Some protein functionality might be lost under these conditions. If maintaining functionality of the target protein is important, try milder elution conditions first such as high salt (e.g. 2M NaCI) or step-wise elution reducing pH from 6 down to 3. This is also recommended if the bead-bound ligand must remain functional to allow reuse of the Dynabeads®.
This product is stable until the expiry date stated on the label when stored unopened at 2-8°C. Store opened vials at 2-8°C and avoid bacterial contamination. Keep Dynabeads® in liquid suspension during storage and all handling steps, as drying will result in reduced performance. Resuspend well before use.
Warnings And Limitations
This product is for research use only. Not intended for any animal or human therapeutic or diagnostic use unless otherwise stated. Follow appropriate laboratory guidelines. This product contains 0.02% sodium azide as a preservative, which is cytotoxic.
Avoid pipetting by mouth!
Sodium azide may react with lead and copper plumbing to form highly explosive metal azides. When disposing through plumbing drains, flush with large volumes of water to prevent azide build up. Certificate of Analysis (CoA) is available upon request. Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is available at .
Typical bead-characteristics for any given lot of this product:
Diameter: 2.8 μm
Specific surface area: 4-8 m2/g
Density: 1.4 g/cm3
- Biswas B. et al. Detection of Ehrlichia risticii from Feces of Infected Horses by Immunomagnetic Separation and PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 1994;32(9):2147-2151
- Kuruvilla A. et al. Platelet-activating factor induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of phospholipase C-gamma1, Fyn and Lynkinases, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in a human B cell line. J Immunol 1994;5433-5442
- Rastogi A. et al. Immunomagnetic separation of subpopulations of apolipoprotein A-I. Mayo Clin Proc 1994;69:137-143
- Vanoosthuyze K. et al. Use of an immunomagnetic separation-ELISA technique for the fast detection of growth promoters in cattle urine. Food & Agricultural Immunology 1994;6:241-249
- Kovacic B. et al. c-Src activation plays a role in endothelin-dependent hyperthrophy of the cardiac myocyte. J Biol Chem 1998;273(52): 35185-35193
- Rehling P. et al. Formation of AP-3 transport intermediates requires Vps41 function. Nat.Cell Biol. 1999;1(6):346-353
- Madey E. et al. Characterization of plasma membrane domains enriched in lipid metabolites. J.Exp.Bot. 2001;52(357):669-679
- Planet E. et al. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A overrides Tau protein kinase l/glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 inhibition and results in Tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus of starved mouse. J Biol Chem 2001;276(36):34298-34306
- Shanks RA. et al. AKAP350 at the Golgi apparatus J Biol Chem 2002;277(43):40973-40980
- Ohashi S. et al. Identification of mRNA/protein (mRNP) complexes containing Pur-a, mStaufen, fragile x protein, and myosin Va and their association with rough endoplasmatic reticulum equipped with a kinesin motor. J Biol Chem 2002;277(40):37804-37810