The later stages of apoptosis are characterized by changes in nuclear morphology, including DNA fragmentation, chromatin condensation, degradation of nuclear envelope, nuclear blebbing, and DNA strand breaks. Life Technologies offers a variety of reagents for analyzing nuclear changes during apoptosis; many are compatible with reagents and procedures used to detect additional apoptotic parameters.
- Also see nuclear assays for flow cytometry
Nuclear Apoptosis Assays
Cells undergoing apoptosis display an increase in nuclear chromatin condensation, which is visible using NucBlue® Live Cell Stain. Staining works for live or fixed cells and is readily combined with other detection procedures.
DNA fragmentation that occurs during apoptosis produces DNA strand breaks, which can be analyzed using TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling) assays. The Click-iT® TUNEL assay is a two-color assay for labeling DNA breaks and total cellular DNA to detect apoptotic cells.
Endothelial cells stained with NucBlue® Live ReadyProbes™ Reagent.
Selection Guide for Nuclear Apoptosis Assays
Changes in DNA morphology such as nuclear condensation or DNA fragmentation are efficient indicators of apoptosis.
|Readout||Click-iT® TUNEL Assays for DNA fragmentation provide efficient discrimination of even high levels of apoptosis in a cell population.||Simple indicator of nuclear condensation that is easily multiplexed with other apoptosis markers.|
|Conjugated dye||Alexa Fluor® 488||Alexa Fluor® 594||Alexa Fluor® 647||Hoechst 33342|
|Standard filter set||FITC||Texas Red®||Cy®5||DAPI|
|Fixed cells||Mild fixation and permeabilization required||Yes|
|Format||1 kit (1 microplate or 50 coverslips)||1 kit|
|Molecular Probes® Handbook||Related Products|