Amino Acid Charge

Amino AcidL_Amino AcidD_Amino AcidN_Terminal Amino Acid ModificationsC_Terminal Amino Acid ModificationsChargeHydrophobicityMolecular Weight
Acetyl   yes  0.31 43.05 
Alanine L-Alanine (A) D-Alanine (a)   0.31 71.08 
Amide    yes -0.6 16.02 
Arginine L-Arginine (R) D-Arginine (r)   -1.01 156.19 
Asparagine L-Asparagine (N) D-Asparagine (n)   -0.6 114.1 
Aspartic Acid L-Aspartic Acid (D) D-Aspartic Acid (d)   -1 -0.77 115.09 
Biocytin amide    yes 1.85 370.5 
Biotin   yes  227.31 
Cysteine L-Cysteine (C) D-Cysteine (c)   1.54 103.14 
Free acid    yes -1 -0.77 17.01 
Free amine   yes  -0.99 1.01 
Glutamic Acid L-Glutamic Acid (E) D-Glutamic Acid (e)   -1 -0.64 129.12 
Glutamine L-Glutamine (Q) D-Glutamine (q)   -0.22 128.13 
Glycine Glycine (G)    57.05 
Histidine L-Histidine (H) D-Histidine (h)   0.13 137.14 
Isoleucine L-Isoleucine (I) D-Isoleucine (i)   1.8 113.16 
Leucine L-Leucine (L) D-Leucine (l)   1.7 113.16 
Long Chain Biotin   yes  1.85 340.47 
Lysine L-Lysine (K) D-Lysine (k)   -0.99 128.17 
Methionine L-Methionine (M) D-Methionine (m)   1.23 131.2 
Phenylalanine L-Phenylalanine (F) D-Phenylalanine (f)   1.79 147.18 
Proline L-Proline (P) D-Proline (p)   0.72 97.12 
Serine L-Serine (S) D-Serine (s)   -0.04 87.08 
Threonine L-Threonine (T) D-Threonine (t)   0.26 101.11 
Tryptophan L-Tryptophan (W) D-Tryptophan (w)   2.25 186.21 
Tyrosine L-Tyrosine (Y) D-Tyrosine (y)   0.96 163.18 
Valine L-Valine (V) D-Valine (v)   1.22 99.13 

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Amino Acid Abreviations

Amino AcidThree LetterOne LetterMW
Alanine Ala 89 
Arginine Arg 174 
Asparagine Asn 132 
Asparagine/aspartic acid Asx — 
Aspartic acid Asp 133 
Cysteine Cys 121 
Glutamic Acid Glu 147 
Glutamine Gln 146 
Glutamine/glutamic acid Glx — 
Glycine Gly 75 
Histidine His 155 
Isoleucine Ile 131 
Leucine Leu 131 
Lysine Lys 146 
Methionine Met 149 
Phenylalanine Phe 165 
Proline Pro 115 
Serine Ser 105 
Threonine Thr 119 
Tryptophan Trp 204 
Tyrosine Tyr 181 
Valine Val 117 

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Codon Usage Table*

U
U
CA
G

UUU Phe
UCU Ser
UAU Tyr
UGU Cys
U

UUC Phe
UCC Ser
UAC Tyr
UGC Cys
C

UUA Leu
UCA Ser
UAA Stop (och)
UGA Stop (opal)
A

UUG Leu
UCG Ser
UAG Stop (amb)
UGG Trp
G
C
CUU Leu
CCU Pro
CAU His
CGU Arg
U

CUC Leu
CCC Pro
CAC His
CGC Arg
C

CUA Leu
CCA Pro
CAA Gln
CGA Arg
A

CUG Leu
CCG Pro
CAG Gln
CGG Arg
G
A
AUU Ile
ACU Thr
AAU Asn
AGU Ser
U

AUC Ile
ACC Thr
AAC Asn
AGC Ser
C

AUA Ile
ACA Thr
AAA Lys
AGA Arg
A

AUG Met
ACG Thr
AAG Lys
AGG Arg
G
G
GUU Val
GCU Ala
GAU Asp
GGU Gly
U

GUC Val
GCC Ala
GAC Asp
GGC Gly
C

GUA Val
GCA Ala
GAA Glu
GGA Gly
A

GUG Val (Met)
GCG Ala
GAG Glu
GGG Gly
G

* Bases are given as ribonucleotides. GUG usually codes for valine, but it can code for methionine to initiate an mRNA chain. Stop (och) refers to the ochre termination triplet and Stop (amb) refers to the amber.
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Common Conversion Formulas for Nucleic Acids and Proteins

Weight Conversions
1 μg=10-6 g
1 ng=10-9 g
1 pg=10-12 g
1 fg=10-15 g

Spectrophotometric Conversions
1 A260 unit of double-stranded DNA = 50 μg/ml
1 A260 unit of single-stranded DNA = 33 μg/ml
1 A260 unit of single-stranded RNA = 40 μg/ml

DNA Molar Conversions
1 μg of 1,000 bp DNA = 1.52 pmole (3.03 pmoles of ends)
1 pmole of 1,000 bp DNA = 0.66 μg

Protein Molar Conversions
100 pmoles of 100,000 dalton protein = 10 μg
100 pmoles of 50,000 dalton protein = 5 μg
100 pmoles of 10,000 dalton protein = 1 μg

Protein/DNA Conversions
1 kb of DNA = 333 amino acids of coding capacity
= 3.7 x 104 dalton protein
10,000 dalton protein = 270 bp DNA
50,000 dalton protein = 1.35 kb DNA
100,000 dalton protein = 2.7 kb DNA

Formulas
Picomole Ends per Microgram of Double-Stranded Linear DNA
(2 x 106)/(660 x Number of Bases) = pmole ends/μg
Exact Molecular Weight of an Oligonucleotide
[(A x 312.2) + (G x 328.2) + (C x 288.2) + (T x 303.2) - 61.0]
= MW (g/mol) of specific oligonucleotide

Protein Molar Conversions
Micrograms Protein  =   Protein Size (kDa) x pmole protein x
109 μg   X       mole
         g              1012 pmol

Half-Life of Common Radioisotopes
Radioisotope                                                              Half-Life
Carbon-14 (14C)                                                        5,730 years
Iodine-125 (125I)                                                        60 days
Phosphorus-32 (32P)                                                14.3 days
Sulfur-35 (35S)                                                           87.4 days
Tritium (3H)                                                                 12.4 years
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LT111